Bloodstain Pattern Analysis Terminology

Note: At the 2009 IABPA meeting in Portland, OR, USA, the IABPA membership voted to adopt the SWGSTAIN recommended terminology.


High Velocity Impact Spatter (HVIS)
A bloodstain pattern caused by a high velocity impact/force to a blood source such as that produced by gunshot or high speed machinery.
Bloodstain Example - High Velocity Impact Spatter (HVIS)
Bloodstain Example - High Velocity Impact Spatter (HVIS)


Special Note: The concept of low, medium, and high velocity spatter is no longer recognized as valid by the bloodstain community. This is an impact pattern.

This pattern was generated using a fan on high speed and dropping blood into the mechanism at an angle that allowed the blood to strike the target.

High velocity impact spatter (HVIS) is generally produced by objects travelling greater than 30 m/s. The majority of the resulting bloodstains are smaller than 1 mm in diameter. This type of pattern is most often associated with gun shot wounds and industrial machinery.

Alternate Terminology

Bevel & GardnerSpatter Family - Non-linear - Impact Spatter
James, Kish & SuttonSpatter - Impact Mechanism - Gunshot or Spatter - Impact Mechanism - Power Tools
WonderSpatter Groups - Impact - Gunshot Distributed Impact Spatter (HVIS)
SWGSTAINClosest to Impact Pattern - A bloodstain pattern resulting from an object striking liquid blood.